PastorRodney’s Weblog

Preaching from the Pulpit of Ephraim Church of the Bible

Leviticus 27; Better Not to Vow

05/14 Leviticus 27; Better Not to Vow;Audio available at: http://www.ephraimbible.org/Sermons/20170514_leviticus-27.mp3

Leviticus 27 is the last chapter of the book. Many scholars feel that this chapter is out of place, an appendix that doesn’t really fit. Chapter 26 with the covenant blessings and curses and the promise of restoration seems like a more fitting end to the book.

This chapter gives specific instructions on vows to the LORD. The vow offering was mentioned but not explained back in Leviticus 7:16; 22:18, 21, 23; 23:38, which left us wondering what a vow offering is all about. This chapter talks about the proper value of things, something that ties back to Leviticus 5:15, 18; 6:6. The adjustment of the value of land in relation to the year of jubilee connects back to chapter 25. The concept of redemption also connects this chapter with chapter 25.

Leviticus 26 was a promise or vow from the LORD; a promise of blessing for obedience and a promise of discipline for rebellion and disobedience. It is common when we have experienced great blessing, out of abundant gratitude to make some kind of promise to the LORD. It is also common in times of great distress, like those described in chapter 26, to promise to the LORD if he will get you out of the desperate situation you are in. Jacob, fleeing from his murderous brother in Genesis 28, made a vow to the LORD if he would protect him and provide for him and return him to his home in peace, then the LORD would be his God and he would give a tenth of everything back to the LORD. So it is fitting to find a chapter regulating vows right after the chapter on blessings and curses.

-Leviticus 1-7 Sacrifices

–Leviticus 8-10 Priests

—Leviticus 11-15 Uncleanness

—-Leviticus 16 Day of Atonement

—Leviticus 17-27 Holy Living

It is appropriate in this section on holy living, that we would find instructions on vows and dedication to the LORD.

Outline / Structure

This chapter moves from vows of persons and animals to dedication of houses and land and back through restrictions of vows on animals and persons and tithes.

Leviticus 27

1 introduction

–2-8 vows of valuation of persons

—-9-13 animals

——14-15 dedicated house

——16-25 dedicated land

—-26-27 firsborn belong to the LORD

–28-29 no redemption or ransom for devoted things

–30-33 tithe belongs to the LORD

34 conclusion

This chapter places an emphasis on a fair valuation of things, and requires an additional 20% to be added to something dedicated that is then bought back by the one who gave it.

The main point of this chapter is ‘be careful what you vow, because God will hold you to it.’

Vows of Valuation of Persons

Leviticus 27:1 The LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, If anyone makes a special vow to the LORD involving the valuation of persons, 3 then the valuation of a male from twenty years old up to sixty years old shall be fifty shekels of silver, according to the shekel of the sanctuary. 4 If the person is a female, the valuation shall be thirty shekels. 5 If the person is from five years old up to twenty years old, the valuation shall be for a male twenty shekels, and for a female ten shekels. 6 If the person is from a month old up to five years old, the valuation shall be for a male five shekels of silver, and for a female the valuation shall be three shekels of silver. 7 And if the person is sixty years old or over, then the valuation for a male shall be fifteen shekels, and for a female ten shekels. 8 And if someone is too poor to pay the valuation, then he shall be made to stand before the priest, and the priest shall value him; the priest shall value him according to what the vower can afford.

A vow of a person to the LORD seems unusual, but this is what Hannah prayed in 1 Samuel 1

1 Samuel 1:11 And she vowed a vow and said, “O LORD of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your servant and remember me and not forget your servant, but will give to your servant a son, then I will give him to the LORD all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his head.”

In her case, her son Samuel was given into the service of the tabernacle. But according to Leviticus, many people would be restricted from service in the tabernacle or temple. This passage sets a standard monetary equivalent for persons of differing capacity for work.

Age Male Female

20-60yrs. 50 shekels 30 shekels

5-20yrs. 20 shekels 10 shekels

1mo.-5yrs. 5 shekels 3 shekels

60+ yrs. 15 shekels 10 shekels

As some estimate the wages of a laborer were about a shekel a month (Hartley, p.481, citing Wenham) these prices were high. But even in this, there was provision for the poor.

Animals

Leviticus 27:9 “If the vow is an animal that may be offered as an offering to the LORD, all of it that he gives to the LORD is holy. 10 He shall not exchange it or make a substitute for it, good for bad, or bad for good; and if he does in fact substitute one animal for another, then both it and the substitute shall be holy. 11 And if it is any unclean animal that may not be offered as an offering to the LORD, then he shall stand the animal before the priest, 12 and the priest shall value it as either good or bad; as the priest values it, so it shall be. 13 But if he wishes to redeem it, he shall add a fifth to the valuation.

Animals could be vowed to the Lord. In Judges 11 when Jephtha vowed:

Judges 11:30 And Jephthah made a vow to the LORD and said, “If you will give the Ammonites into my hand, 31 then whatever comes out from the doors of my house to meet me when I return in peace from the Ammonites shall be the LORD’s, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.”

Perhaps he envisioned one of his flock or herd coming to meet him. The animal could have been clean or unclean; if it were clean, it could not be substituted; if it were unclean, it must be either sold or redeemed. What came to meet Jephtha from his door was his daughter, his only child. If Jephtha had known the law, according to Leviticus 5, he could have confessed the sin of his rash oath and offered an animal sacrifice to the LORD. But this story illustrates how seriously the people took vows.

Judges 11:35 And as soon as he saw her, he tore his clothes and said, “Alas, my daughter! You have brought me very low, and you have become the cause of great trouble to me. For I have opened my mouth to the LORD, and I cannot take back my vow.” …39 And at the end of two months, she returned to her father, who did with her according to his vow that he had made…

Ignorance of the Scriptures can have appalling consequences. This was a time when Israel ‘abandoned the LORD and served’ false gods; a time when ‘everyone did what was right in his own eyes.’ Attempting to manipulate God with a vow or a promise is a dangerous venture.

Houses and Land

Leviticus 27:14 “When a man dedicates his house as a holy gift to the LORD, the priest shall value it as either good or bad; as the priest values it, so it shall stand. 15 And if the donor wishes to redeem his house, he shall add a fifth to the valuation price, and it shall be his. 16 “If a man dedicates to the LORD part of the land that is his possession, then the valuation shall be in proportion to its seed. A homer of barley seed shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver. 17 If he dedicates his field from the year of jubilee, the valuation shall stand, 18 but if he dedicates his field after the jubilee, then the priest shall calculate the price according to the years that remain until the year of jubilee, and a deduction shall be made from the valuation. 19 And if he who dedicates the field wishes to redeem it, then he shall add a fifth to its valuation price, and it shall remain his. 20 But if he does not wish to redeem the field, or if he has sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed anymore. 21 But the field, when it is released in the jubilee, shall be a holy gift to the LORD, like a field that has been devoted. The priest shall be in possession of it. 22 If he dedicates to the LORD a field that he has bought, which is not a part of his possession, 23 then the priest shall calculate the amount of the valuation for it up to the year of jubilee, and the man shall give the valuation on that day as a holy gift to the LORD. 24 In the year of jubilee the field shall return to him from whom it was bought, to whom the land belongs as a possession. 25 Every valuation shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary: twenty gerahs shall make a shekel.

Houses and land can be dedicated to the LORD. There was to be a fair and standard valuation, based on its potential productivity and years of availability. As with other things, a house or field can be redeemed by the donor with an added 20%.

Restrictions: Firstborn

But there were restrictions on what could or could not be donated.

Leviticus 27:26 “But a firstborn of animals, which as a firstborn belongs to the LORD, no man may dedicate; whether ox or sheep, it is the LORD’s. 27 And if it is an unclean animal, then he shall buy it back at the valuation, and add a fifth to it; or, if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold at the valuation.

According to Exodus 13, God laid claim to all firstborn animals. So a person could not attempt to claim double credit for one animal. A firstborn animal already belongs to the LORD, so he could not also pledge it as the fulfillment of a vow.

Restrictions: Devoted Things and People

Many of the laws here specify values and what is to be paid to redeem something back after having vowed it. The assumption is that a person after vowing then reconsiders and wants to reclaim what they pledged in a vow. There is provision in some cases for an additional fee to redeem something back.

Leviticus 27:28 “But no devoted thing that a man devotes to the LORD, of anything that he has, whether man or beast, or of his inherited field, shall be sold or redeemed; every devoted thing is most holy to the LORD. 29 No one devoted, who is to be devoted for destruction from mankind, shall be ransomed; he shall surely be put to death.

A devoted thing is a category from which there is no recourse. A devoted thing is most holy to the LORD, and cannot be sold or redeemed. It must be used exclusively in service to YHWH. Some cities during the conquest, like Jericho, were devoted to destruction. Some people, like those guilty of premeditated murder, were devoted to destruction and could not be freed by any payment.

Restrictions: Tithes

The final section deals with tithes. Tithes already belong to the LORD, so a tithe cannot also be offered in fulfillment of a vow.

Leviticus 27:30 “Every tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land or of the fruit of the trees, is the LORD’s; it is holy to the LORD. 31 If a man wishes to redeem some of his tithe, he shall add a fifth to it. 32 And every tithe of herds and flocks, every tenth animal of all that pass under the herdsman’s staff, shall be holy to the LORD. 33 One shall not differentiate between good or bad, neither shall he make a substitute for it; and if he does substitute for it, then both it and the substitute shall be holy; it shall not be redeemed.” 34 These are the commandments that the LORD commanded Moses for the people of Israel on Mount Sinai.

Better Not To Vow

God will not be cheated. As he says in Malachi,

Malachi 1:14 Cursed be the cheat who has a male in his flock, and vows it, and yet sacrifices to the Lord what is blemished. For I am a great King, says the LORD of hosts, and my name will be feared among the nations.

Deuteronomy 23 says

Deuteronomy 23:21 “If you make a vow to the LORD your God, you shall not delay fulfilling it, for the LORD your God will surely require it of you, and you will be guilty of sin. 22 But if you refrain from vowing, you will not be guilty of sin. 23 You shall be careful to do what has passed your lips, for you have voluntarily vowed to the LORD your God what you have promised with your mouth.

By definition, vows are freely made. There is no expectation, no obligation, no consequence for not making the vow. A vow can be a beautiful expression of thanksgiving and worship to our gracious God. But vows are never to be used to gain advantage or to manipulate God to do our will.

In the early church, in an atmosphere of unity and generosity, where the believers, amazed by God’s graceto them in Jesus, were eager to extend his grace and generosity to one another.

Acts 5:1 But a man named Ananias, with his wife Sapphira, sold a piece of property, 2 and with his wife’s knowledge he kept back for himself some of the proceeds and brought only a part of it and laid it at the apostles’ feet. 3 But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? 4 While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not at your disposal? Why is it that you have contrived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to man but to God.” 5 When Ananias heard these words, he fell down and breathed his last. And great fear came upon all who heard of it.

It is clear, they were under no obligation to give anything. They sought to appear more generous than they were. They lied to the Holy Spirit. That proved to be very costly.

The Preacher in Ecclesiastes says:

Ecclesiastes 5:1 Guard your steps when you go to the house of God. To draw near to listen is better than to offer the sacrifice of fools, for they do not know that they are doing evil. 2 Be not rash with your mouth, nor let your heart be hasty to utter a word before God, for God is in heaven and you are on earth. Therefore let your words be few. 3 For a dream comes with much business, and a fool’s voice with many words. 4 When you vow a vow to God, do not delay paying it, for he has no pleasure in fools. Pay what you vow. 5 It is better that you should not vow than that you should vow and not pay. 6 Let not your mouth lead you into sin, and do not say before the messenger that it was a mistake. Why should God be angry at your voice and destroy the work of your hands? 7 For when dreams increase and words grow many, there is vanity; but God is the one you must fear.

Proverbs gives this wisdom:

Proverbs 20:24 A man’s steps are from the LORD; how then can man understand his way? 25 It is a snare to say rashly, “It is holy,” and to reflect only after making vows.

That is a good summary of what this concluding chapter of Leviticus is about. Do not vow rashly. Our tendency is to speak before we think. We are inclined to think we can manipulate the situation.

Vows like Jacob’s and Jephtha’s come from a lack of faith. God had just unconditionally promised to Jacob that he would be with him and would bless him and return him home in peace. Jephtha had been empowered by God’s Spirit and God was already moving to give the Ammonites into his hand. But Jephtha felt he had to bribe God to get him to do what he wanted. Jacob responded to God’s unconditional promises with a condition promise – ‘if you do what you say, then I will give you something back’. These vows were rooted in doubt. They attempted to leverage God to do what they wished with a bribe. They undermined God’s gracious character and promises.

Our God is a Father who loves to give good gifts to his children. God has given to us his precious and very great promises in the gospel (2Pet.1:4). What God gives is grace – freely given.

Isaiah 30:18 Therefore the LORD waits to be gracious to you, and therefore he exalts himself to show mercy to you… 19 …He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry. As soon as he hears it, he answers you.

Ephesians 2 says:

Ephesians 2:4 But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us, 5 even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ— by grace you have been saved— … 7 so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace you have been saved…

We experience the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. It is all of grace. God will be no man’s debtor.

Romans 11:35 “Or who has given a gift to him that he might be repaid?” 36 For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.

Pastor Rodney Zedicher ~ Ephraim Church of the Bible ~ www.ephraimbible.org

Advertisements

May 15, 2017 - Posted by | Leviticus, podcast | , , , , , , , ,

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: